Adthink Media Coursework

Unformatted text preview: 'ffiu i.i I Starting with Inquiry: Habits of Mind of Academic Writers t the center of all academic writing is a curiosity about how the world rvorks and a desire to understand it in its full complexity. To discover and make sense of that complexity, academic writers apply rigorous habits of mind, patterns of thought that lead them to question assumptions, explore alternatives, anticipate opposing arguments, compare experiences, and identifu the causes and consequences of ideas and events. Habits of mind are especially important today, when we are bombarded with appeals to buy this or that product and with information that may or may not be true. For example, in "1.06 Science Claims and a Truckful of Baloney" (The Best American Science and Nature Writing,2005), Williain Speed Weed illustrates the extent to which the claims of science vie for our attention alongside the claims of advertising. He notes that advertisers often package their claims as science, but wonders whether a box of Cheerios really can reduce cholesterol. As readers we have a responsibility to test the claims of both science and advertising in order to decide what to believe and act upon. Weed found that "very few of the 100 claims" he evaluated "proved completely true" and that "a good number were patently false." Testing the truth of claims - learning to consider information carefully and critically, and to weigh competing points of view before making our own judgments - gives us power over our own lives. The habits of mind and practices valued by academic writers are probably ones you already share. You are behaving "academically" when you comparison-shop, a process that entails learning about the product in magazines and on the Internet and then looking at the choices firsthand before you decide which one you will purchase. You employ these same habits of mind when you deliberate over casting a vote in an election. You 12 1 CHAPTER I STARTING WITH INQUIRYHABITSOF MIND inform yourself about the issues that are most pressingi you learn about the candidates' positions on these issues; you consider other arguments for and against both issues and candidates; and you weigh those arguments and your own understanding to determine which candidate you will support. Fundamentally, academic habits of mind are analytical. When you consider a variety of factors - the quality and functionality of the item you plan to buy, how it meets your needs, how it compares to similar items Lefore making a shopping choice, you are conducting an analysis. That is, you are pausing to examine the reasons why you should buy something, inrteud of simply handing over your cash and saying, "I want one of those." To a certain extent, analysis involves breaking something down into its various parts and reflecting on how the parts do or don't work together. For example, when you deliberate over your vote, you may consult one of those charts that newspapers often run around election time: A list of candidates appears across the top of the chart, and a list of issues appears on the side. You can scan the columns to see where each candidate stands on the issues, and you can scan the rows to see how the candidates compare on a particular issue. The newspaper editors have performed a preliminary analysis for you. They've asked, "Who are the candidates?" "What are the issues?"and "Where does each candidate stand on the issues?";and they have presented the answers to you in a format that can help you make your decision. But you still have to perform your own analysis of the information before you cast your ballot. Suppose no candidate holds your position on every issue. Who do you vote for? Which issues are most important to you? Or suppose two candidates hold your position on every issue. Which one do you vote for? What characteristics or experience are you looking for in an elected official? And you may want to investigate further by visiting the candidates' Web sites or by talking with your friends to gather their thoughts on the election. As you can see, analysis involves more than simply disassembling or dissecting something. It is a process of continually asking questions and looking for answers. Analysis reflects, in the best senseof the word, a skeptical habit of mind, an unwillingness to settle for obvious answers in the quest to understand why things are the way they are and how they might be different. This book will help you develop the questioning, evaluating, and conversational skills you already have into strategies that will improve your ability to make careful, informed judgments about the often conflicting and confusing information you are confronted with every day in your classes,in the news, in advertising, in all of your interactions. With these strategies, you will be in a position to use your writing skills to create change where you feel it is most needed. The first steps in developing these skills are to recognize the key academic habits of mind and then to refine your practice of them. We explore four key habits of mind in the rest of this chapter: ( I ) inquiring, (2) seeking ACADEMIC WRITERS MAKE INQUIRIES 13 and valuing complexity, (3) understanding that academic writing is a con_ versation, and (4) understanding that writing is a process. ACADEMIC WRITERS MAKE INQUIRIES Academic writers usually study a body of information so closely and from so many different perspectives that they can ask questions that may not occur to people who are just scanning the information. That is, academic writers learn to make inquiries. Every piece of academic writing begins with a question about the way the world works, and the best questions lead to rich, complex insights that others can learn from and build on. you will find that the ability to ask good questions is equally valuable in your daily life. Asking thoughtful questions about politics, popular culture, work, or anything else - questions like How has violence become so commonplace in our schools? what exactly did that candidate mean by "Family values are values for all of us," anyrvay? what is lost and gained by bringing Tolkien's Lord of the Rlrugstrilogy to the screen? what dles it take to move ahead in this company? Are those practices ethical? - is the first step in understanding how the world works and how it can be changed. Inquiry typically begins with observation, a careful noting of phe_ nomena or behaviors that puzzle you or challenge your beliefs and values (in a text or in the real world), which prompts an attempt to understand them by asking questions (why does this exist? why is this happening? Do things have to be this way?) and examining alternatives (Maybe this doesnt need to exist. Maybe this could happen another way instead.). For example, Mark Edmundson, a professor of English at the University of Virginia, obsewes that his students seem to prefer classes they consider "fun" over those that push them to work hard. This prompts him to as& how the consumer culture - especially the entertainment culture - has altered the college experience. In his essay "on the Uses of a Liberal Education," he wonders what it means that colleges increasingly see students as customers they need to please with club Med-style exercise facilities that look "like a retirement spread for the young" morl than as minds to be educated. He further asfu what will happen if we dont change course if entertaining students and making them feel good abouithemselves cortinue to be higher priorities than challenging students to stretch themselveswith difficult ideas. Finally, he considers alternatives to entertainmentstyle education and examines those alternatives to see what they would offer students. In her reading on the American civil rights movement of the 1950sand 1960s, one of our students observed that the difficulties many immisrant groups experienced when they first arrived in the united States arI not acknowledged as struggles for civil rights. This student of Asian descent wondered why the difficulties Asians faced in assimilating into American culture are not seen as analogous to the efforts of African Americans to t4 CHAPTER I I STARTINGWITH INQUIRY HABITS OF MIND gain civil rights (Why are things this way?). In doing so, she asked a number of relevant questions: What do we leave out when we tell stories about ourselves? Why reduce the strrrggle for civil rights to black-and-white terms? How can we represent the multiple struggles of people who have contributed to building our nation? Then she examined altematives different ways of presenting the history of a nation that prides itself on justice and the protection of its people's civil rights (Maybe this doesn't need to exist. Maybe this could happen another way.). The academic writing you will read - and write yourself - starts with questions and seeks to find rich answers. fl Ob""*". Note phenomena or behaviors that puzzle you or challenge your beliefs and values. E art questions. Consider why things are the way they are. E Examine alternatives. Explore how things could be different. A Practice Sequence: Inquiring The activities below will help you practice the strategies of obsen'ing, asking questions, and examining alternatives. 1 Find an advertisement for a political campaign (you can find many political ads on the Internet), and write down any'thing about what you observe in the ad that puzzles you or that challengesyour beliefs and values. Next, write down questions you might have (Do things have to be this way?). Finally, r,r'ritedor'r'nother u'avs you think the ad could persuade you to vote for this parlicular instead.). candidate (Maybe this could happen another r,r,ay 2 Locate and analyze data about the students at your school. For example, you might research the available majors and determine which departments have the highest and lowest enrollments. (Some schools have fact books that can be accessedonline; and typically the registrar maintains a database with this information.) Is there anything that puzzles you? Write down any questions you have (Why are things the \\'ay thel'are?). What alternative explanations can you provide to account for differences in the popularity of the subjects students major in? 3 Read the following passageabout school choice that appeared on the Civil Rights Project Web site in 2002. The Civil Rights Project is a leading research center on civil rights, with a particular interest in education reform. Since its founding in 1996, the project has ACADEMIC WRITERS MAKE INQUIRIES convened dozens of national conferences and roundtables; com_ missioned more than 400 new research and policy studies; and produced major reports on desegregation, student diversity, school discipline, special education, dropouts, and Title I programs. After you read the passage, rvrite down what puzzles you or challenges vour beliefs and values. Next, write down any questions 1,ou might have. Finally, write down what you see as alternative ways to look at the problem the writer identifies. when you complete this exercise, share your responses with one of your classmates. School choice has been'iewed as a remedy to improve the quality of local schools and empou'er inner-city and lorver-income parents by offering parents the freedom to choose the kind ofeducation their children u,ould receive. In the realm ofpublic school education,school choice has taken the form of magnet schools, charter schools, and other test_based or speciall,ntracked schools. Parents and students have the option to choose schools other than neighborhood schools that generally have a similar racial, ethnic, and socio-economicmakeup to their local area. Priv:ite school choice, on the other hand, is a measure that some states have adopted to gi'e lourer-income students the opportunitv to attend pri'ate schools thev othenvise could not afford. This comes in the form of a 'oucher that parents can use to*,ard the cost of pri'ate or religious school tuition for their children. Though advocates of school choice claim that it is the best u,av to enablestudentsin failing public schoolsto -qet better education, a the issue of school choice raises some troubling questions about the impacts of indi'idual "choice" on a societv that aims to provide all of its citizens n'ith equal accessto educational opportr-rnities. Educators have found that choice programs are likely to increase the segregation of students bv race, social class, and educational background. Greater choice in public education is also unlikelr,; on its ou n, to increase either the number of programs offered or the overall performance of schools. While school choice mav allou,such int'bmted families and commu_ nities to make significantdecisionsabout their childrens education, it is imporlant to understancl that not all families are equally informed. Better-educatedparents u'ho are more likel-vto be involved closerywith t h e i ' c h i l d . e n s s c h o o l i n g f o r e r a m p l e ,h a r . e o n s i s t e n t l y e e np r . o n e o , c b t participate in choice programs. while those children in families that are a\\,areof school options and have the means to activelv choose them mav benefit from a greater range o[ opporlunities, those that are not arvare of options u'ill not. The lack of resourcesand information for families living in largelv minoritv areas of high poveft!.means that not e'era one u'ill benefit equally from school choice. Those students that arc-zibleto make informed school clecisionsu,ilr reavethose that are not i' their neighborhood schools.Thus, school choice will furthel segregateschools along racial, ethnic, socio_economic,and educertionalbackgrounds. l5 16 CHAPTER 1 i STARTINGWITH INQUIRY: HABITS OF MIND ACADEMIC WRITERS SEEK AND VALUE COMPLEXITY Seeking and valuing complexity are what inquiry is all about. As you read academic arguments (for example, about school choice), observe how the media work to influence your opinions (for example, in political ads), or analyze data (for example, about major subjects), you will explore reasons why things are the way they are and how they might be different. When you do so, we encourage you not to settle for simple either/or reasons. Instead, look for multiple explanations. there are only tr.lo When we rely on binary thinking-imagining sides to an issue - we tend to ignore information that does not fall tidily into one side or the other. Think of the sound-bite assertions you hear bandied about on talk shows on the pretext of "discussing" a hot-button issue like stem-cell research or abortion: "It's just wrongiright becauseit is!" Real-world questions - How has the Internet changed our sense of what it means to be an author? What are the global repercussions of fast food? How do we make sense of terrorism? - don't have easy for-or-against answers. Remember that an issue is a subject that can be explored and a debated. Issue-basedquestions, then, need to be approached r,r.'ith mind open to complex possibilities. (We say more about identif ing issues and formulating issue-basedquestions in Chapter 4.) If we take as an example the issue of terrorism, we would discover that scholars of religion, economics, ethics, and politics tend to ask very different questions about terrorism, and to propose very different approaches for addressing this worldwide problem. This doesn't mean that one approach is right and the others are wrong; it means that complex issuesare likely to have multiple explanations, rather than a simple choice between A and B. In her attempt to explain the popularity of the Harry Potter books and movies, Elizabeth Teare, a professor of English, provides a windorv on the steps we can take to examine the complexity of a topic. She begins her essay "Harry Potter and the Technology of Magic" with the observations that author J. K. Rowling is one of the ten most influential people in publishing, and that her books have "transformed both the technologies of reading and the way we understand those technologies." Motivated by a senseof curiosity, if not puzzlement, Teare formulates a guiding question: "What is it that makes these books - about a lonely boy whose first act on learning he is a wizard is to go shopping for a wand - not only an international phenomenon among children and parents and teachers but also a topic of compelling interest to literary social, and cultural critics?" Notice that in doing so, she indicates that she will examine this question from the multiple perspectives of literary social, and cultural critics. To find answers to this question, Teare explores a range of perspectives from a variety of sources, including publishers'Web sites, trade journals, academic studies, and works of fiction for voung readers. ACADEMIC SEEKANDVALUE COMPLEXITY WRITERS 17 One of our students was curious about why a well-known musician, Eminem, was at once so widely popular and so bitterly reviled, a phenomenon he obserwedin discussions with friends and in reviews of Eminem's music. He set out to understand these conflicting responses by examining the differing perspectives of music critics, politicians, religious evangelists, and his peers; and then he formulated an issue-basedquestion: "How can we explain Eminem's popularity given the ways people criticize Eminem personally and his music?" In looking at this issue, the student opened himself to complexity by resisting simple answers to his question about why Eminem and his music evoked such different and conflicting responses. ll Reflect on what you observe. Clarifi' your initial interest in a phenomenon or behavior by focusing on its particular details. Then reflect on what is most interesting and least interesting to you about these details, and why. pl Examine issues from multiple points of view. Imagine more than two sides to the issue, and reco.qnizethat there may well be other points of view too. f,l Ask issue-based questions. Try to put into words questions that lvill help you explore why things are the way they are. A Practice Sequence: Seeking and Valuing Complexity These activities build on the previous exerciseswe asked you to complete. I Look again at the political ad. Think about other perspectives that would complicate your understanding of how the ad might persuade voters. 2 Imagine other perspectives on the data you found on the students in your school. Let's say, for example, that you've looked at data on student majors. How did you explain the popularity of cerlain majors and the unpopularity of others? How do you think other students would explain these discrepancies?What explanations would facultv members offer? 3 Consider your responsesto the excelpt on school choice that you shared with one of your classmates.In addition to the explanations each of you provided, what are some other ways you could look at the issue of school choice? What wor,rldparents argue? What about administrators? Teachers?Students? 18 CHAPTERl I STARTINGWITHINQUIRYHABITSOFMIND ACADEMIC WRITERS SEE WRITING AS A CONVERSATION Another habit of mind at the heart of academic writing is the understanding that ideas always build on and respond to other ideas,just as they do in the best kind of conversations. Of course, conversations in academic writing happen on the page; they are not spoken' Still, these conversations are quite similar to the conversations you have through e-mail and instant messaging: You are responding to something someone else has written (or said) and are writing back in anticipation of future responses. Academic writing also places a high value on the belief that good, thoughtful ideas come from conversations with others, many others. As your exposure to other viewpoints increases, as you take more and different points of view into consideration and build on them, your own ideas will develop more fully and fairly. You already know that to get a full picture of something, often you have to ask for multiple perspectives.When you want to find out what "really" happened at an event when your friends are telling you different stories, you listen to all of them and then evaluate the evidence to draw conclusions you can stand behind - just as academic writers do. Theologian Martin Marty starts a conversation about hospitality in his bookwhen Faiths Collide (2004). Hospitality is a word he uses to describe a human behavior that has the potential to bring about real understanding among people who do not share a common faith or culture. As Marty points out, finding common ground is an especially important and timely concern "in a world where strangers meet strangers with gunfire, barrier walls, spiritually land-mined paths, and the spirit of revenge." He believes that people need opportunities to share their stories, their values, and their beliefs; in doing so, they feel less threatened by ideas they do not understand or identily with. Yet Marty anticipates the possibility that the notion of hospitality will be met with skepticism or incomprehension by those who find the term "dainty." After all, he obserwes,that there are hospitality suites and hospitality industries suggests curTent usage of the term is different from historical usage, particularly in the Bible. To counter the incredulity or incomprehension of those who do not immediately understand his use of the termhospitality, Marty gives his readers entre to a conversation with other scholars who understand the complexity and power of the kind of hospitality shown by people who welcome a stranger into their world. The stranger he has in mind may simply be the person who moves in next door; but that person could also be an immigrant, an exile, or a refugee. Marly brings another scholar, Darrell Fasching, into the conversation to explain that hospitality entails welcoming "the stranger . . . [which] inevitably involves us in a sympathetic passing over into the other's life and stories" (cited in Marty, p. 132). And John Koenig, another scholar Marty cites, traces the biblical sources of the term in an effort to show the value of understanding those we fear. That understanding, Marty argues, might lead to ACADEMIC WRITERSSEEWRITINGASA CONVERSATION 19 peace among warring factions. The conversation Marty begins on the page helps us see that his views on bringing about peace have their source in other people's ideas. In turn, the fact that he draws on multiple sources gives strength to Marty's argument. The characteristics that make for effective oral conversation are also in play in effective academic conversation: empathy, respect, and a willingness to exchange and revise ideas. Empathy is the ability to understand the perspectives that shape what people think, believe, and value. To express both empathy and respect for the positions of all people involved in the conversation, academic writers try to understand the conditions under which each opinion might be true and then to represent the strengths of that position accurately. For example, imagine that your firm commitment to protecting the environment is challenged by those who see the value of developing land rich with oil and other resources. In challenging their position, it would serve you well to understand their motives, both economic (lower gas prices, new jobs that will create a demand for new houses) and political (less dependence on foreign oil). If you can demonstrate your knowledge of these factors, those committed to developing resources in protected areas will listen to you. To convey empathy and respect while presenting your own point of view, you might introduce your argument by saying: Although it is important to developuntappedresourcesin remote areasof the United States both to lower gaspricesand createnew jobs, and to eliminate our dependence other countries'resources, is in everyone's on it interestto usealternative sources power and protectour natural resources. of As you demonstrate your knowledge and a sense of shared values, you could also describe the conditions under which you might change your own position. People engaging in productive conversation try to create change by listening and responding to one another rather than dominating one another. Instead of trying to win an argument, they focus on reaching a mutual understanding. This does not mean that effective communicators do not take strong positions; more often than not they do. Howeve4 they are more likely to achieve their goals by persuading others instead of ignoring them and their points of view. Similarly, writers come to every issue with an agenda. But they realize Lhatthey may have to compromise on certain points to carry those that mean the most to them. More important, they understand that their perceptions and opinions may be flawed or limited, and they are willing to revise them when valid new perspectives are introduced. In an academic community, ideas develop through give-and-take, through a conversation that builds on what has come before and grows stronger from multiple perspectives. You will find this dynamic at work in your classes,when you discuss your ideas: You will build on other people's insights, and they will build on yours. As a habit of mind, paying attention to academic conversations can improve the thinking and writing you do in every class you take. 20 CHAPTER I I STARTINGWITH INQUIRY HABITS OF MIND E B" receptive to the ideas of others. Listen carefully and empathetically to what others have to say. E B. respectful of the ideas of others. When you refer to the opinions of others, be respectful. p Engage with the ideas of others. Try to understand how people have arrived at their feelings and beliefs. ll B" flexible in your thinking about the ideas of others. Be rvilling to exchange ideas and to revise vour own opinions. A Practice Sequence: Joining an Academic Conversation The follow-ing excerpt is taken from Thomas Patterson's The Vanishing Voter (2002), an examination of voter apathy. Read the excerpt and then complete the exercises that follow Does a diminished appetite for voting affect the health of American politics? Is society harrned u'hen the r,oting rate is lorv or in decline? As the ChicagoTiibmte said in an editorial, it mav be "humiliating" that the United States,the oldest continuous democracy has nearlv the lou'es1 voting rate in the rvorld. But does it har-eanv practical significance?. . . The increasing number of nonvoters could be a danger to democracy. Although high participation by itself does not trigger radical change, a flood of ner,r'votersinto the electorate could possibll'do it. Iti difficult to imagine a crisis big and dir,isir,eenough to prompt millions of neu'voters to suddenlv flock to the polls, especiallf in light of Americans'aversion to political extremism. Nevertheless,citizens u'ho are outside the electorate are less attached to the existing system. As the sociologist Seymour Marlin Lipset obsen ed, a society of nonvoters "is potentiallv more explosive than one in r'r'hichmost citizens are regtilarll' involved in activities u'hich give them some senseof parlicipation in decisions u'hich affect their lives." Voting can strengthen citizenship in other wavs, too. When people vote, they are more attentive to politics and are better informed about issues affecting them. Voting also deepens community involvement, as the philosopher John Stuart Mill theorized a century ago. Studies indicate that voters are more active in communitl- affairs than non\roters are. Of course, this association says more about the t1'peof person n'ho votes as opposed to the effect ofvoting. But recent evidence, as Han'ard Universitv'sRobert Putnam notes, "suggests that the ac1ofvoting itself encollrages voluntcering and other forms of government citizenship." I In this excerpt, Patterson presents two arguments: that increasing voter apathy is a danger to democracy and that voting strengthens ACADEMIC WRITERS UNDERSTAND THATWRITINGIS A PROCESS 2I citizenship. With which of these arguments do you sympathize more? Why? Can you imagine reasons that another person might not agree with vou? Write them down. Now do the same exercise rvith the argument you find less compelling. 2 Your instmctor rvill divide the class into four groups and assign each group a position - pro or con - on one of Patterson'sarguments. Brainstorm with the members of your group to come up with examples or reasons rvhy your group's position is valid. Make a list of those examples or reasons, and be prepared to present them to the class. 3 Your instr-uctor u'ill nor.vbreak up the groups into new groups, each rvith at least one representative ofthe original groups. In turn with the other members of your new group, take a few moments to arliculate vour position and the reasonsfor it. Remember to be civil and as persuasive as possible. 4 Finally rr,,iththe other members of vour new group, talk about the merits of the various points of vier.uTry to find common ground ("I understand what vou are sayingi in fact, its not unlike the point I n as making about . . ."). The point of this discussionis not to pronounce a u'inner (r.r,,ho macle the best case for his or her perspectir.e) but to explore common ground, exchangeand revise i d e a s ,a n d i m a g i n ec o m p r o m i s e s . ACADEMIC WRITE,RS UNDERSTAND THAT WRITING IS A PROCESS Academic writing is a process of defining issues, formulating questions, and developing sound arguments. This vier.r, rvriting collnters a number of of popular myths: that ',r,riting depends on inspiration, that writing should happen quicklv, that learning to u'rite in one context prepares you to r,ririte in other contexts, and that revision is the same as editing. The writing process addressesthese myths. First, choosing an idea that matters to yoll is one \\'ay to make :r'our \vriting matter. And, there's a better chance that writing vou care about rvill contribute in a meaningful way to the conversation going on about a given issue in the academic community. Second, l.r'ritersu'ho invest time in der,eloping and revising their ideas will improve both the qualitv of their ideas and their language- their ability to be specific and express complexity. There are three main stagesto the writing process:collecting information, drafting, and revising. We introduce them here and expand on them throughout this book. CHAPTER 1 22 r Collect ACADEMIC WRITERS THATWRITINGIS A PROCESS UNDERSTAND I STARTING WITH INQUIRY HABITS OF MIND Information and Material Always begin the process of writing an essay by collecting in witing the material - the information, ideas, and evidence - from which you will shape your own argument. Once you have read and marked the pages of a text, you have begun the process of building your own argument. The important point here is that you start to put your ideas on paper. Good writing comes from returning to your ideas on your own and with your classmates,reconsidering them, and revising them as your thinking develops. This is not something you can do with any specificity unless you have written down your ideas. The box below shows the steps for gathering information foom your reading, the first stage in the process of writing an academic essay.(In Chapter 2, these steps are illustrated and discussed in more detail.) if in the process of writing new ideas emerge that enrich the essay. This is why it's important not to agonize over wording in a first draft: It's difficult to toss out a paragraph you've sweated over for hours. Use the first draft to get your ideas down on paper so that you and your peers can discuss what you see there, with the knowledge that you (like your peers) will need to stay open to the possibility of changing an aspect of your focus or argument. E Look through the materials you have collected to see what interests you most and what you have the most to say about. a Identifu what is at issue, what is open to dispute. tr Formulate a question that your essay will respond to. g E Mark your texts as you read. Note key terms; ask questions in the margins; indicate connections to other texts. a List quotations you find interesting and provocative. You might even write short notes to yourself about what you find significant about the quotes. g List your own ideas in response to the reading or readings. Include what you've observed about the way the author or authors make their arguments. 4t Sketch out the similarities and differences among the authors whose work you plan to use in your essay. Where would they agree or disagree?How would each respond to the others' arguments and evidence? r Draft, and Draft Again The next stage in the writing process begins when you are ready to think about your focus and how to arrange the ideas you have gathered in the collecting stage. Writers often find that writing a first draft is an act of discovery that their ultimate focus emerges during this initial drafting process. Sometimes it is only at the end of a four-page draft that a writer says, "Aha! This is what I really want to talk about in this essay!" Later revisions of an essay,then, are not simply editing or cleaning up the grammar of a first draft. Instead, they truly involve revision, seeing the first draft again to establish the clearest possible argument and the most persuasive evidence. This means that you do not have to stick with the way a draft turns out the first time. You can - and must! - be willing to rewrite a substantial amount of a first draft if the focus of the argument changes, or 23 Select the material you will include, and decide what is outside your focus. E Consider the tlpes of readers who might be most interested in what you have to say. ct Gather more material what you want once you've decided on your purpose to teach your readers. 7 E Formulate a working thesis that conveys the point you want to make. Consider possible arguments against your position and your response to them. r Revise Significantly The final stage, revising, might involve several different drafts as you continue to sharpen your insights and the organization of what you have written. As we discuss in Chapter 10, you and your peers will be reading one another's drafts, offering feedback as you move from the larger issues to the smaller ones. It should be clear by now that academic writing is done in a community of thinkers: That is, people read other people's drafts and make suggestions for further clarification, further development of ideas, and sometimes further research. This is quite different from simply editing someone's writing for grammatical errors and typos. Instead, drafting and revising with real readers, as we discuss in Chapter 7, allow you to participate in the collaborative spirit of the academy, in which knowledge making is a group activity that comes out of the conversation of ideas. Importantly, this process approach to writing in the company of real readers mirors the conversation of ideas carried on in the pages of academic books and journals. 24 !l CHAPTER 1 I STARTING WITH INQUIRY HABITS OF MIND Draft and revise the introduction and conclusion. E Ctarifu any obscure or confusing passages your peers have pointed out. fl Provide details and textual evidence where your peers have asked for new or more information. El Check to be sure you have included opposing points of view and have addressed them fairly. B Consider reorganization. p Check to be sure every paragraph contributes clearly to your thesis or main claim, and that you have included signposts along the way, phrases that help a reader understand your purpose ("Here I turn to an example from current movies to show how this issue is alive and well in pop culture"). fl Consider using strategies you have found effective in other reading you have done for class (repeating words or phrases for effect, asking rhetorical questions, varying your sentencelength). The four academic habits of mind we have discussed throughout this chapter - making inquiries, seeking and valuing complexity, understanding writing as a conversation, and understanding writing as a process are fundamental patterns of thought you will need to cultivate as an academic writer. The core skills we discuss through the rest of the book build on these habits of minil. From Readins as a Writer to Writing as a Reader p eading for class and then writing an essay might seem to be separate I\tasks, but reading is actually the first step in the writing process. In this chapter we present the small steps and specific practices that will help you read more effectively and move from reading to writing strategies as you compose vour own college essays.These steps and practices will lead you to understand a writer's purpose in responding to a situation, the motivation for asserting a claim in an essayand entering a particular conversation with a par.ticular audience. READING AS AN ACT OF COMPOSING: ANNOTATING Leaving your mark on the page - annotating - is your first act of composing. When you mark up the pages of a text, you are reading critically, engaging with the ideas of others, questioning and testing those ideas, and inquiring into their significance. Critical reading is sometimes called active reading to distinguish it from memorization, when you just read for the main idea so that you can "spit it back out on a test." When you read actively and critically, you bring your knowledge, experiences, and interests to a text, so that you can respond to the writef, continuing the conversation the writer has begun. Experienced college readers dont try to memorize a text or assume they must understand it completely before they respond to it. Instead they read strategically, looking for the writer's claims, for the writer's key ideas ...
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Adthink’s advertising solutions encompass the entire value chain of online marketing, from Display Network to Affiliate Network, with its own independent Trading Desk, and its team of experts in Data Activation and Customer Acquisition, ensuring total control over every step in conveying our clients’ messages to consumers.

Online advertising is a complex and technology-driven industry, and its landscape is always evolving. That’s why Adthink has always placed R&D investments at the centre of its strategy. After proposing the first video streaming advertising offer in 2001, Adthink was named an Innovative New Company by the French Investment Bank (Bpifrance) and the French Ministry of Research. Adthink also took home the Deloitte Technology Fast 50 trophy.

Adthink (ALADM) made its initial public offering on the Euronext market in 2007 and is now a leading European smart performance advertising agency. The company is based in Lyon and has offices in Paris, Geneva and San Francisco.

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