Chapter 53 Community Ecology Vocabulary Homework

Dear Parents and Students,

All of my notes, calendars and tutorials are posted on SCHOOLOGY.  The information posted on this webpage is derived from the older curriculum and can be considered as extra information available for students who desire extra help.  Please sign in to your SCHOOLOGY ACCOUNT to receive this year's notes and lessons by clicking on the following link:   




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    •   National Pass Rate:    63.2%
    • Congratulations on your amazing results.  I am SO Proud of you!!



Welcome Students. The First section lists a ton of study sites for you to use as a reference throughout the year with practice AP exams and quizzes.  After the photos section is each unit's information, in order with support materials.



  Please feel free to email me @  if you have any questions.


STUDY TOOLS FOR YOU! (ALL Individual Unit Information begin after photos)



  -Lab Tutorials and Pre-lab Animations and Questions
      (Lab Bench AP Lab Tutorials)
 2)  AP BIOLOGY FLASH CARDS (all terms from each chapter!!)
        (chapters are off by one...our chapter 24 is their chapter 23)


 3)  BIOCOACH ACTIVITIES (helps review major concepts from each unit with quiz)



  4) PRACTICE TESTS AND QUIZZES FOR EACH UNIT!!! (check this out; worth doing!!




















   11)  Review AP Exams from REVIEW BOOKS

       - CampaignID=9248


  12) Cummulative list of ALL VOCAB TERMS/ALL CHAPTERS:   see how many you know!!




  1. Hamster Research Links
  • Hamster Genetics  (use this link for genetic info: we have Dwarf Campbell Russians...follow "Genetics" links to determine which traits are dominant).
  • Additional Hamster Genetics  (Hamster Genetics Direct Link)

AP Biology Dunes Succession Field Study, MILLER DUNES/PAUL H. DOUGLAS CENTER in Gary, Indiana. (September 23, 2011)

(AP Biology Macroinvertebrate Field Study, Bartel Grasslands and Frankfort Square
October, 2010)




(AP Biology Students at Indiana Dunes, Oct. 1, 2012 and Prairie, Yankee Woods

and Bartel Grasslands, November 20, 2012)




INTRODUCTION UNIT:  Themes/Experimental Design & Statistics

a) Chapter 1 Scientific Inquiry/Data Analysis

  • Emergence Video NOVA                                                                                                                                                                                

b)  StatisticsTutorials (Khan Academy) 


c) Statistics Labs with M&M's

d)  Practice Test Questions (Click on the

Unit I:  Biochemistry (Chapters 2-5)

Chapter 2:  Basic Chemistry Review 
 -Chapter 2 NOTES

 -Chapter 2 Powerpoint Notes
 -Chapter 2 Homework Study Guide
 -Chapter 2 Activity
- Emergent Properties Video
-Animations and Tutorials  (bonding, atomic number, ect)      

 -Bozeman Biology Tutorials                                                                                                                                                                  


  -Chapter 2 Practice Test   (click on chapter; select maximum question number 0f 40 )                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    
Chapter 3:  Properties of Water
  • -Water Powerpoint
  • -Chapter 3 Notes Water Chemistry
  •  -Chapter 3 Homework Study Guide
  • -Water Properties Activity (Book)
  • -Bozeman Biology Tutorials                                                                                                                                                                                                           
- Chapter 3 Animations 
  • -pH Animation
  • -pH Tutorial
  • -Buffer Animation
  • - Lecture on Acid/Base/Buffers and pKa
  • -Cat drinking water
  • -Dog drinking water 


    • Chapter 3 Practice Test   (click on chapter; select maximum of 40 )                                                                                                                                                                                                       


Chapter 4:  Carbon Chemistry


Chapter 5 Macromolecules


Carbs Notes

Carbs Study guide

Lipid Notes

Lipid Studyguide

Protein Notes

Protein Study Guide

Nucleic Acids Notes

Nucleic Acid Study Guide



Extra Worksheets

Worksheet 4/5.1 Identify Macromolecules

Worksheet 4/5.2 Macromolecules

Chart Cheat Sheet for Macromolecules
Amino acids chart

ANIMATIONS Of Biological Molecules (Lipids, Proteins, Carbs, Nucleic Acids)
macromolecules animation
step by step biomolecules tutorial with quiz
types of chemical reactions animation
hydrolysis/dehydration synthesis animation 1
hydrolysis/dehydration synthesis animation 2
You tube animation of biomolecules (good one)
Protein Folding (know this one1)
Protein Folding and pH Animation
Protein Folding Again
Advanced Protein Folding
Amino Acids and pH animation

Review Self-Quizzes
Chapter 5 Practice quiz (Choose Chapter)
Functional groups Quiz Interactive
DNA vs. RNA quiz

Unit II:  Cell Energy  (Chapters 8-10)


Chapter 8 Thermodynamics/Enzymes



  1. Gibbs Energy and Thermodynamics Online Tutorials
  1. ENZYMES Animations and Tutorials


  1. Enzyme Lab #2:  One of the "Big 13" 





Chapter 9 Respiration


Chapter 10 Photosynthesis  

         look at all of the photosynthesis quizzez and take them...use the animations for photosynthesis under "Web Links" as

         a wonderful tutorial.  These worksheets and quizzez will be used in class as study tools. 



Unit III: Ecology Unit (CHAPTERS 51-55)

  • Chapter 51 Animal Behavior


  • Chapter 50 and 52:  Introduction to the Biosphere and Population Ecology


  • Chapter 52 Video Lecture:  Population Ecology   
      • Watch Population Ecology:  Unlimited Resources
      • Watch Population Ecology:  Limited Resources
      • Watch Population Ecology:  r versus K
      • Watch Pop. Ecol:  Intraspecific competition
      • Watch Pop. Ecol:  Interspecific competition
      • Watch Pop. Ecol:  Predation
      • Watch Pop. Ecol:  Niches and ALSO symbiosis!!



Chapter 53:  Community Ecology 


Semester 1 Ecology Review Question Answers (1-44)

Sem1 Ecology Sample Questions Review Answers


Unit IV:   Cell Biology Ch. 6,7,11,12


  • Cell Video Lectures Cell Techniques   (if you can't find video directly through link, search under my mindbites)


  • Cell Video Lectures, Cell Structure and Organelles

Chapter 7 Cell Membranes/Transport

Presentation on theme: "Turn in: 1. Video Notes 2. Worksheets from yesterday 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Turn in: 1. Video Notes 2. Worksheets from yesterday 1

2 Ecology Community Ecology

3 Populations are linked by interspecific interactions that impact the survival & reproduction of the species involved Examples?

4 Factors that Impact Communities 1. Disease 2. Interspecific Interactions: Competition Predation Symbiosis  Mutualism − mycorrhizae  Commensalism

5 Early Hypotheses of Community Structure Individualistic Individualistic Hypothesis − a chance group of species is linked & distributed according to its tolerance ranges for abiotic factors

6 Early Hypotheses of Community Structure Individualistic Interactive hypothesis - states that the community is an integrated unit comprised of closely-related species associating with each other due to biotic interactions.

7 Early Hypotheses of Community Structure Individualistic Community composition seems to change continuously, with each species independently distributed

8 Community Structure Community−an assemblage of populations living close enough together for potential interaction Dominant Species−most abundant, highest biomass, powerful control over occurrence and distribution of other species… VA Sugar Maple Keystone Species−NOT necessarily most abundant, exert strong control due to their ecological roles or niches… Sea Otters!!! Richness number of species & abundance Why would one species become dominant?

9 Biodiversity 9 Communities with higher diversity are –More productive and more stable regarding their productivity –Better able to withstand and recover from environmental stresses –More resistant to invasive species, organisms that become established outside their native range –Identify human actions that affect ecosystems and predict and explain the consequences

10 Species Diversity Species Richness (# of different species) Species Diversity = + Relative abundance 10 (proportion each different species represents of all the individuals in the community)

11 Species Richness 11 Which community is richer? A B

12 Sample Data 12 The data below represents the abundance of macro- invertebrates taken from three different river communities in Georgia. A variety of diversity indices may be used to calculate species diversity. Based on the data below, which community has the greatest diversity? Explain!

13 Observation Of Sea Otter Populations And Their Predation Food chain before killer whale involve- ment in chain (a) Sea otter abundance (b) Sea urchin biomass (c) Total kelp density Number per 0.25 m 2 19721985198919931997 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 100 200 300 400 Grams per 0.25 m 2 Otter number (% max. count) 0 40 20 60 80 100 Year Food chain after killer whales started preying on otters Explain the patterns seen in the graph and explain why those patterns occur.

14 Killer Whales vs. Sea Otters Predator-Pray Energetics The daily caloric requirements for male versus female killer whales (orcas) is shown below: Male killer whale: 308,000 kcal/day Female killer whale: 187,000 kcal/day Calculate the average caloric value of a sea otter assuming a male orca consumes five sea otters each day to meet its caloric requirement.

15 Killer Whales vs. Sea Otters Predator-Pray Energetics Calculate the average caloric value of a sea otter assuming a male orca consumes five sea otters each day to meet its caloric requirement. Using dimensional analysis or simple arithmetic:

16 Killer Whales vs. Sea Otters Predator-Prey Energetics Assume a population of 4 male orcas feed solely on sea otters. How many otters are lost to the community over a 6-year period?

17 Killer Whales vs. Sea Otters Predator-Pray Energetics Assume a population of 4 male orcas feed solely on sea otters. How many otters are lost to the community over a 6-year period?

18 Why the change? –Some fish populations have declined in recent decades –Shortage of certain fish caused substantial declines in harbor seals and sea lions –Shortage of seals and sea lions resulted in killer whales preying on smaller sea otters Interestingly, The Sea Otter Is Not Usually The Orca’s Food of Choice

19 Why Should We Care About Declining Numbers of Sea Otters? Sea otters are an important part of the coastal community The loss of sea otters affects the community directly and indirectly

20 A keystone species is one that has a strong effect on the composition of the community –Removal of keystone species causes a decrease in species richness –Sea otters eat sea urchins which are fierce competitors having a diet of kelp Indirect Effect on the Community

21 Sea Urchin Population vs. Kelp Density examine and interpret the graph! 21

22 Homework 1. Videos: ‘Environmental Exchange’- take notes on your own 2. Read and note sec 42.1-42.3 3. Finish coyote removal and competitive exclusion worksheets Reminders: bring in pill bugs, come afterschool to plant mung beans, supplies 22

23 Ecological Niches An organism’s niche is the specific role it plays in its environment…its job! All of its uses of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment Ex: oak tree in a deciduous forest  Provides oxygen to plants, animals  Provides a home for squirrels  Provides a nesting ground for blue jays  Removes water from the soil

24 The Niche Ecological niche is the total of an organism’s use of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment Ex: Barnacle species on the coast of Scotland Compare and contrast fundamental and realized niches?

25 Competition Between Organisms Of Different Species Can Be Direct Or Indirect Interference − Directly fighting over resources Exploitative − Indirectly competing by consuming a common limiting resource (space) Apparent- Indirectly between 2 species both preyed upon by the same predator. Example: Species A and species B are both prey of predator C. The increase of species A will cause the decrease of species B because the increase of As would increase the number of predator Cs which in turn will hunt more of species B.

26 Competitive Exclusion Principle Sometimes referred to as Gause's law of competitive exclusion states that two species competing for the same resources cannot coexist if other ecological factors are constant. The competing species that has even the slightest advantage will dominate in the long term and emerge the victor. The loser will either relocate or become extinct. The principle has been paraphrased as "complete competitors cannot coexist".

27 Competition Between Organisms Of Different Species- Examine and interpret the results

28 Solutions to Competitive Exclusion Resource partitioning− sympatric species consume slightly different foods or use resources in different ways Ex: Anolis lizard sp. perching sites in the Dominican Republic

29 Solutions to Competitive Exclusion Character displacement− sympatric species tend to diverge in the characteristics that overlap Ex: Darwin’s finch beak size on the Galapagos Islands

30 Succession Ecological succession − transition in species composition over ecological time Pioneer organisms = bacteria, lichen, algae Climax community = stable Primary − begun in lifeless area; no soil, perhaps volcanic activity or retreating glacier. Secondary an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact

31 Human Impact on Ecosystems Humans are the most widespread agents of disturbance – Reduces diversity – Prevent some naturally occurring disturbances

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