Harlakhi Mla Bibliography

1. Bihar Legislative Assembly – The Bihar Legislative Assembly, also known as the Bihar Vidhan Sabha, is the lower house of the bicameral legislature of the Indian state of Bihar. The Bihar Legislative Assembly came into existence in 1937, the Assembly had a strength of 152 members. According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, the first General Elections in the state were held in 1952, the total strength of membership in the Assembly was 331, including one nominated member. It was reduced to 318 during the second General Elections, in 1977, the total number of elected members of the Bihar Legislative Assembly was further raised from 318 to 324. The current ruling government formed after 2015 legislative election consist of RJD+JD + congress, the Bihar Legislative Assembly is not a permanent body and subject to dissolution. The tenure of the Legislative Assembly is five years from the date appointed for its first sitting unless dissolved sooner, members of the Legislative Assembly are directly elected by the people. There are three sessions every year, current assembly elections were held in October–November 2015

2. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety

3. Indian National Congress – The Indian National Congress is one of two major political parties in India, the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party. Congress was founded in 1885 during the British Raj, its founders include Allan Octavian Hume, Dadabhai Naoroji, there have been seven Congress Prime Ministers, the first being Jawaharlal Nehru, and the most recent Manmohan Singh. The partys social liberal platform is considered to be on the centre-left of Indian politics. From 2004 to 2014, the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance, a coalition of regional parties. As of March 2017, the party is in power in five states, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Meghalaya, in Bihar, it is a part of the ruling coalition. The Congress has previously directly ruled Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, in the 2014 general election, the Congress had its poorest post-independence general election performance, winning only 44 seats of the 543-member house. The party primarily endorses social liberalism—seeking to balance individual liberty and social justice, the Congress was founded in 1885 by Indian and British members of the Theosophical Society movement, including Scotsman Allan Octavian Hume. It has been suggested that the idea was conceived in a meeting of 17 men after a Theosophical Convention held in Madras in December 1884. Hume took the initiative, and in March 1885 the first notice convening the first Indian National Union to meet in Poona the following December was issued. Its objective was to obtain a share in government for educated Indians and to create a platform for civic. The first meeting was scheduled to be held in Poona, Hume organised the first meeting in Bombay with the approval of the Viceroy Lord Dufferin. Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee was the first president of the Congress, the first session was held from 28–31 December 1885, representing each province of India, the Partys delegates comprised 54 Hindus and 2 Muslims, the rest were of Parsi and Jain backgrounds. It also included Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal, Lala Lajpat Rai, Gopal Krishna Gokhale and Mohammed Ali Jinnah—later leader of the Muslim League and instrumental in the creation of Pakistan. The Congress was transformed into a movement by Surendranath Banerjea and Sir Henry Cotton during the partition of Bengal in 1905. Mahatma Gandhi returned from South Africa in 1915, in 1923 following the deaths of policemen at Chauri Chaura, Gandhi suspended the agitation. In protest, a number of leaders, Chittaranjan Das, Annie Besant, the Khilafat movement collapsed and the Congress was split. Although its members were predominantly Hindu, it had members from other religions, economic classes, at the Congress 1929 Lahore session under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru, Purna Swaraj was declared as the partys goal, declaring 26 January 1930 as Purna Swaraj Diwas, Independence Day. The same year, Srinivas Iyenger was expelled from the party for demanding full independence, the British government allowed provincial elections in India in the winter of 1936–37 under the Government of India Act 1935

4. First-past-the-post voting – First-past-the-post voting method is one of several plurality voting methods. It is a common, but not universal, feature of voting methods with single-member electoral divisions, the method is widely used in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and most of their current and former colonies and protectorates, and a few other countries. There is some confusion between highest vote, majority vote and plurality voting methods, all three use a first-past-the-post voting method, but there are subtle differences in the method of execution. First-past-the-post voting is used in two-round systems and some exhaustive ballots. First-past-the-post voting methods can be used for single- and multiple-member electoral divisions, in a single-member election, the candidate with the highest number – not necessarily a majority – of votes is elected. The two-round voting method uses a first-past-the-post voting method in each of the two rounds, the first round determines which two candidates will progress to the second, final-round ballot. In a multiple-member, first-past-the-post ballot, the first number of candidates – in order of highest vote, if there are six vacancies, then the first six candidates with the highest vote are elected. The Electoral Reform Society is a pressure group based in the United Kingdom which advocates abolishing the first-past-the-post method for all national and local elections. It argues FPTP is bad for voters, bad for government and it is the oldest organisation concerned with electoral methods in the world. States other than Maine and Nebraska use a form of simple plurality, first-past-the-post voting. Under a first-past-the-post voting method the highest polling candidate is elected, in this real-life example, Tony Tan obtained a greater number than the other candidates, and so was declared the winner, even though majority of voters did not vote for him. It is more likely that a party will hold a majority of legislative seats. In the United Kingdom,18 out of 23 general elections since 1922 have produced a single-party majority government. For example, the 2005 United Kingdom general election results in Great Britain are as follows, It can be seen that Labour took a majority of seats, 57%, the largest two parties took 69% of votes and 88% of seats. Meanwhile, the smaller Liberal Democrat party took more than a fifth of votes, another example would be the UK General Election held on 7 May 2015, Here, the Conservatives took 51% of the seats with only 37% of the vote. It should be noted that the Liberal Democrats also suffered under first-past-the-post, the benefits of FPTP are that its concept is very easy to understand, and ballots can be easily counted and processed. Alternative methods such as rank-based voting require far more work or processing power to tabulate results than a single choice, supporters of FPTP argue that it is the electoral method providing the best governance. It trades fairness in representation for more responsible government and its tendency to produce majority rule allows the government to pursue a consistent strategy for its term in office and to make decisions that may be both correct and unpopular

5. Satyendra Narayan Sinha – Satyendra Narayan Sinha was born in an aristocratic political family in Poiwan, Gaya district, Bihar. He spent his student years under the tutelage of Lal Bahadur Shastri at Allahabad, brought up in a political environment, S. N. Sinha completed his bachelors degree from Allahabad University and earned a degree in law from Lucknow University. He practised law at the Patna High Court, but left his job to join the Indian Independence movement and he organised Legal Aid Programmes for political prisoners during pre-Independence days. After Independence he was elected to the provisional Parliament from Bihar in 1950 and he was part of the young Turk brigade of the Indian National Congress party during the time of the first Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru. He also a held a range of portfolios including Local Self Government and he is credited with streamlining the entire education system of the Bihar state. As the state minister, he played an instrumental role in the establishment of Magadh University in Bodh Gaya. He occupied the position in the Cabinet and played the role of a de facto Chief Minister during the period 1961–1967 under the Governments headed by K. B. He had a unique political acumen to determine the prospects of candidates in assembly election by just sitting at home in Patna. S. N. Sinha also played a key role in the installations of Governments headed by chief ministers Krishana Ballabh Sahay, Satish Prasad Singh, mandal, Sardar Harihar Singh, Bhola Paswan Shastri and Ram Sundar Das. He never hankered after power even when it was well within his reach, the reigning Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, declared a state of emergency on 25 June 1975 due to internal political disturbances. Accordingly, all fundamental rights enjoyed in the Indian Constitution were suspended, political dissidents, newspaper reporters, opposition leaders who opposed emergency were jailed. Chhote Saheb, along other prominent leaders, opposed this blatant misuse of state machinery. In 1977, during the emergency in India, he was president of Bihar Janata Party. D. Deve Gowda, Inder Kumar Gujral, Raj Narain, George Fernandes and Karpuri Thakur, after the emergency was lifted on 21 March 1977, fresh general elections were held in India. In Bihar, the Janata Party won all the fifty-four Lok Sabha seats in 1977 general elections under the mentorship of Jayaprakash Narayan and he struck by the Janata Party and preferred to be in opposition although he would have been considered a prize catch by the Congress party. He quit the party following differences with the then party presidentChandra Shekhar Singh, the then Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi came down to Patna to formally admit him back to the Congress party. As the Chief Minister of Bihar, Chhote Saheb also held the portfolio of Education for the term in his later years 1989–1990. In 2007, Manmohan Singhs government finally put a stamp of approval on it and he is also credited for the establishment of the Indira Gandhi Planetarium cum Science Centre in Patna

6. Swatantra Party – The Swatantra Party was an Indian conservative political party that existed from 1959 to 1974. Rajagopalachari in reaction to what he felt was the Jawaharlal Nehru-dominated Indian National Congresss increasingly socialist and statist outlook, Swatantra stood for a market-based economy with the Licence Raj dismantled, although it opposed laissez faire policies. The party was thus favoured by some traders and industrialists, but at the state-level its leadership was dominated by the privileged classes such as zamindars. The Prime Minister was highly critical of Swatantra, dubbing the party as belonging to the ages of lords, castles. In the 1962 general election, the first after its formation, Swatantra received 6.8 percent of the total votes and it emerged as the main opposition to the dominant Congress in four states—Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Orissa. In 1971, Swatantra joined a Grand Alliance of parties from across the spectrum who aimed to defeat Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. The party secured eight seats, winning only 3% of the votes, the next year, in 1972, its founder Rajagopalachari died, and Swatantra declined rapidly. By 1974, it merged into the Charan Singh-led Bharatiya Kranti Dal, when Jayaprakash Narayan was asked in 2014 whether he saw his Loksatta Party as a modern-day re-embodiment of the Swatantra Party, he replied in a large measure, yes. The founders of Swatantra Party were visionaries and had India followed their leadership, we could have been where China is today, economically. Gayatri Devi K. M. Munshi Mariadas Ruthnaswamy Minoo Masani N. G. Ranga Piloo Mody S. V. Raju V. P. Menon Indian National Congress breakaway parties Bipan Chandra et al, the Swatantra Party and Indian Conservatism. Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2013, India After Gandhi, The History of the Worlds Largest Democracy. Role of Swantantra Party as an Opposition Party, why Swatantra,1960 Minoo Masani, To provide A Democratic Alternative. Why Swatantra,1960 K. M. Munshi, To Restore Fundamental Rights, why Swatantra,1960 N. G. Ranga, To Preserve Family Economy

7. Bharatiya Jana Sangh – In 1977, it merged with several other left, centre and right parties opposed to rule of the Indian National Congress and formed the Janata Party. After the Janata Party split in 1980, it was re-formed as the Bharatiya Janata Party in 1980, the BJS was started by Syama Prasad Mookerjee on 21 October 1951 in Delhi in collaboration with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh as a nationalistic alternative to the India Congress. After the death of Mookerjee, the RSS activists in the party edged out the career politicians and made it a political arm of the RSS, the symbol of the party in Indian elections was an oil lamp and like the RSS, its ideology was centred on Hindutva. In the 1952 general elections to the Parliament of India, Bharatiya Jana Sangh won three seats, Mookerjee being one of the winning candidates, the BJS would often link up on issues and debates with the right-wing Swatantra Party of Chakravarti Rajagopalachari. Its strongest parliamentary performance came in the 1967 elections, when the Congress majority was its thinnest ever, the BJS was ideologically close to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, and derived most of its political activist base and candidates from the RSS ranks. The BJSs strongest constituencies were in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, the BJS leadership strongly supported a stringent policy against Pakistan and China, and were averse to the USSR and communism. Many BJS leaders also inaugurated the drive to ban cow slaughter nationwide in the early 1960s, in 1975, Indira Gandhi declared a state of Emergency, and threw many major opposition politicians in jail including the leaders of the BJS. In 1977, the Emergency was withdrawn, and elections were held, the BJS, joined forces with the Bharatiya Lok Dal, the Congress, and the Socialist Party, to form the Janata Party. The Janata Party became the first Indian government not led by the Indian National Congress, former BJS leaders Atal Bihari Vajpayee and L. K. Advani became the External Affairs, and Information and Broadcasting Ministers respectively. Syama Prasad Mookerjee Mauli Chandra Sharma Prem Nath Dogra Acharya D. P, ghosh Pitambar Das Avasarala Rama Rao Acharya D. P. Shyama Prasad Mookerjee and Durga Charan Banerjee were elected from Bengal, all the like-minded parties formed a block in the Parliament, led by Shyama Prasad Mookerjee. The party steadily improved its electoral performance until, as a constituent of the Janata Party in 1977, in 2014 elections, the BJP emerged as the largest single party in the lower house of the Indian Parliament, forming a government under the leadership of Narendra Modi. On 17 January 2000, there were reports of the RSS, former president of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Balraj Madhok had written a letter to the then RSS chief Rajendra Singh for support. The Jana Sangh - A Biography of an Indian Political Party, graham, B. D. Hindu Nationalism and Indian Politics, The Origins and Development of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics

8. Communist Party of India – The Communist Party of India is a communist party in India. In the Indian Communist movement, there are different views on exactly when the Communist Party of India was founded, but the date maintained as the foundation day by the CPI is 26 December 1925. However, the Communist Party of India, which separated from the CPI, has a different version that it was founded in 1920, the Communist Party of India has officially stated that it was formed on 25 December 1925 at the first Party Conference in Kanpur. The founding members of the party were M. N, Roy, Evelyn Trent Roy, Abani Mukherji, Rosa Fitingof, Mohammad Ali, Mohammad Shafiq Siddiqui, Rafiq Ahmed of Bhopal and M. P. B. T. Aacharya, and Sultan Ahmed Khan Tarin of North-West Frontier Province, the CPI says that there were many communist groups formed by Indians with the help of foreigners in different parts of the world and the Tashkent group was only one of. Contacts with Anushilan and Jugantar groups in Bengal, small communist groups were formed in Bengal, Bombay, Madras, United Provinces and Punjab and Sindh. However, only Usmani became a CPI party member, during the 1920s and the early 1930s the party was badly organised, and in practice there were several communist groups working with limited national coordination. The British colonial authorities had banned all communist activity, which made the task of building a united party very difficult, between 1921 and 1924 there were three conspiracy trials against the communist movement, First Peshawar Conspiracy Case, Meerut Conspiracy Case and the Cawnpore Bolshevik Conspiracy Case. In the first three cases, Russian-trained muhajir communists were put on trial, however, the Cawnpore trial had more political impact. Roy, S. A. Dange, Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani, Singaravelu Chettiar, Ghulam Hussain, sharma were charged, in Cawnpore Bolshevik Conspiracy case. Singaravelu Chettiar was released on account of illness, Roy was in Germany and R. C. Sharma in French Pondichéry, and therefore could not be arrested, Ghulam Hussain confessed that he had received money from the Russians in Kabul and was pardoned. Muzaffar Ahmed, Nalini Gupta, Shaukat Usmani and Dange were sentenced for various terms of imprisonment and this case was responsible for actively introducing communism to a larger Indian audience. Dange was released from prison in 1927, on 25 December 1925 a communist conference was organised in Kanpur. Colonial authorities estimated that 500 persons took part in the conference, the conference was convened by a man called Satyabhakta. At the conference Satyabhakta argued for a National communism and against subordination under Comintern, being outvoted by the other delegates, Satyabhakta left both the conference venue in protest. The conference adopted the name Communist Party of India, groups such as Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan dissolved into the unified CPI. The émigré CPI, which probably had little organic character anyway, was substituted by the organisation now operating inside India

9. Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha – The Akhil Bhāratiya Hindū Mahāsabhā is a Hindu nationalist political party in India. Although quite an old Hindu nationalist political party, the Hindu Mahasabha has remained marginal in its influence on Indian politics, in 1909, Arya Samaj leaders Lala Lajpat Rai, Lal Chand and Shadi Lal established the Punjab Hindu Sabha. Madan Mohan Malaviya presided over the Sabhas first session at Lahore in October 1909, the Sabha stated that it was not a sectarian organisation, but an all-embracing movement that aimed to safeguard the interests of the entire Hindu community. The Sabha organised five more annual conferences in Punjab. The development of the work for Hindu unity that started in the early 20th century in Punjab was a precursor for the formation of the All India Hindu Sabha. Over the next few years, several such Hindu Sabhas were established outside Punjab, including in United Provinces, Bihar, Bengal, Central Provinces and Berar, a formal move to establish an umbrella All-India Hindu Sabha was made at the Allahabad session of Congress in 1910. A committee headed by Lala Baij Nath was set up to draw up a constitution, another conference of Hindu leaders in Allahabad also took the initial step to establish an All India Hindu Sabha in 1910, but this organisation did not become operational due to factional strife. On 8 December 1913, the Punjab Hindu Sabha passed a resolution to create an All India Hindu Sabha at its Ambala session, the Conference proposed holding a general conference of Hindu leaders from all over India at the 1915 Kumbh Mela in Haridwar. Preparatory sessions of the All India Hindu Sabha were held at Haridwar, Lucknow, in April 1915, Sarvadeshak Hindu Sabha was formed as an umbrella organisation of regional Hindu Sabhas, at the Kumbh Mela in Haridwar. Gandhi and Swami Shraddhanand were also present at the conference, and were supportive of the formation of All India Hindu Sabha, the Sabha laid emphasis on Hindu solidarity and the need for social reform. Manindra Chandra Nandy, the President of the Conference, declared that the Sabha would be loyal to the British Government and this pro-British stance was criticised by Shraddhanand. The Sabha formally changed its name to Akhil Bharatiya Hindu Mahasabha at its session in April 1921. Amongst the Mahasabhas early leaders was the prominent nationalist and educationalist Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, who founded the Benaras Hindu University, and the Punjabi populist Lala Lajpat Rai. Under Malaviya, the Mahasabha campaigned for Hindu political unity, for the education, in the late 1920s, the Mahasabha came under the influence of leaders like Balakrishna Shivram Moonje and Vinayak Damodar Savarkar. Savarkar was a revolutionary who had been banned from anti-British political activities. Under Savarkar, the Mahasabha became a more intense critic of the Congress, although ideologically similar to the Mahasabha, the RSS grew faster across the nation and became a competitor for the core constituency of the Mahasabha. While not exactly loyal to the British Raj, the Hindu Mahasabha did not actively support the Indian freedom movement against British rule in India, under the leadership of Mohandas Gandhi, the Congress led several nationwide campaigns of non-violent civil disobedience. The Mahasabha officially abstained from participating in the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930, the Indian National Congress won a massive victory in the Indian provincial elections,1937, decimating the Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha

10. B. P. Mandal – Bindheshwari Prasad Mandal was an Indian parliamentarian, social reformer of the country who served as the chairman of the Second Backward Classes Commission. Mandal was a big landlord from Saharsa in Northern Bihar, P. Mandal came from Yadav community designated as an Other Backward Class in Indias system promoting positive discrimination. Mandal was a Member of Parliament in the Lok Sabha for the state of Bihar from 1967 to 1970 and 1977 to 1979 and he was the second OBC Chief Minister of Bihar, governing for 30 days in 1968, a period of intense political instability. In December 1978, Prime Minister Morarji Desai appointed a civil rights commission under the chairmanship of Mandal. The commissions report was completed in 1980 and recommended that a significant proportion of all government, the commissions report was tabled indefinitely by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. A decade later, Prime Minister V. P. Singh implemented the recommendations of the Mandal Report, Mandal and his wife, Sita Mandal, were survived by five sons and two daughters. The third son, Maninder Kumar Mandal, and his son Nikhil Mandal are active in national, a college named in his honour, B. P. Mandal Engineering College, was founded in 2007. List of Chief Ministers of Bihar

11. Krishna Ballabh Sahay – Krishna Ballabh Sahay was an Indian freedom fighter, who after independence became the Revenue minister of Bihar and then became the Chief Minister of unified Bihar. Krishna Ballabh Sahay popularly known as K. B, Sahay was born on 31 December 1898 at Sheikhpura in the Patna district of Bihar. He was the eldest son of Munshi Ganga Prasad, who served as a Daroga under British Rule. In 1919, he graduated with first class in English honors from St. Columbas College, soon thereafter in 1920, Sri Krishna Ballabh Sahay jumped into the fray giving up further studies by joining the Civil Disobedience Movement at the call of Mahatma Gandhi. Between 1930 and 1934, he was jailed four times for different periods while taking part in the independence movement, during one of these incarcerations, he met his mentor Sri Babu and this bond of friendship remained intact throughout their lives. He was also close to Anugrah Narayan Sinha, the other legendary nationalist from Bihar, came 1942 and with it came Gandhis battle cry of Do or Die for the Quit India Movement. Before this, senior leaders of Bihar including Dr. Rajendra Prasad & Dr. Sri Krishna Ballabh Sahay was a contributor to this plan. Quit India Movement was launched with great fierceness all over India, the British Government ordered immediate arrest of all its leaders. An order to arrest K B Sahay was passed by Deputy Commissioner, Hazaribagh, as a consequence, he was sent off to Bhagalpur jail with orders for rigorous imprisonment. Sahay also developed sympathy for the peasants whose inhuman suffering at the hands of zamindars had a great bearing on his mind. At a meeting at Chhapra on 11 May 1942, presided over by Dr. Rajendra Prasad and at such meeting at Kudra in Shahabad. Chief Minister of Bihar Sri Babu and Deputy Chief Minister of Bihar Anugrah Babu, Sri Babu asked him to arrange a public meeting at his native place Tarapur in Munger. At this meeting, issues related to Torture of inhabitants of Banaili Raj by their Zamindar was taken up by Sri Babu and this meeting which was also attended by Acharya J. B. Kriplani and was a grand success, after independence, when the interim government was formed in Bihar, K. B. Sahay was given the Revenue ministry since it was his pet subject. This gave him an opportunity to fulfill his dream of relieving the peasants from the clutches of zamindars. He is credited with having authored and passed the first pioneering legislation in the country to abolish the Zamindari system, in 1952, it was the first such legislation in the country. During this period, Sri K. B, Sahay also survived a body blow intended to wipe him out. K. B. Sahay was almost alone in his crusade for reforms in the formative 1950s and 60s

12. Elections in Bihar – Elections in Bihar state, India are conducted in accordance with the Constitution of India. In addition, the legislature may be dismissed by the Parliament according to Article 356 of the Indian Constitution. The Indian general election,2009 in Bihar were held for 40 seats with the going to polls in the first four phases of the general elections. The major contenders in the state were the National Democratic Alliance, Indian National Congress, NDA consisted of the Bharatiya Janata Party and Janata Dal whereas the fourth front was constituted of the Rashtriya Janata Dal, Lok Jan Shakti Party and the Samajwadi Party. Both the houses of the state legislature jointly nominate Members of Parliament to the Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the house of the Parliament of India. Membership of Rajya Sabha is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of 250 members, Members sit for staggered six-year terms, with one third of the members retiring every two years. Bihar legislature assembly has 243 seats, for the election of its members, the state is divided into 243 Assembly Constituencies in which the candidate securing the largest number of votes is declared elected. In the Bihar Assembly Elections,2010, the National Democratic Alliance formed the government having secured a simple majority of 206 seats. Bihar Legislative Assembly came into existence in 1937, the Assembly had a strength of 152 members. According to the provisions of the Constitution of India, the first General Elections in the state were held in 1952, the total strength of membership in the Assembly was 331, including one nominated member. It was reduced to 318 during the second General Elections, in 1977, the total number of elected members of the Bihar Legislative Assembly was further raised from 318 to 324. Others are elected from various sections of the society like Graduates, currently the Legislative Council consists of 95 members. A new Province of Bihar and Orissa was created by the British Government on 12 December 1911, the Legislative Council with a total of 43 members belonging to different categories was formed in 1912. The first sitting of the Council was convened on 20 January 1913, in 1936, Bihar attained its separate Statehood. Under the Government of India Act,1919, the legislature got converted into bicameral one, i. e. the Bihar Legislative Council. Under the Government of India Act,1935, the Bihar Legislative Council consisted of 29 members, after the first General Elections 1952, the number of members was increased up to 72 and by 1958 the number was raised to 96. Janata Dal,167, BJP,41, INC,29, RJD,103, BJP+Samata, 39+28 2005-Feb, Total,243. JD+BJP, 55+37=92, RJD,75, INC,10 2005-Oct, JD+BJP, 88+55=143, RJD,54, INC,102010, JD+BJP, 115+91=206, RJD,22, INC,42015, Total,243

13. Election Commission of India – The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in India. The body administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state legislatures, the Election Commission operates under the authority of Constitution per Article 324, and subsequently enacted Representation of the People Act. The Commission has the powers under the Constitution, to act in an appropriate manner when the enacted laws make insufficient provisions to deal with a situation in the conduct of an election. Originally in 1950, the commission had only a Chief Election Commissioner, two additional Commissioners were appointed to the commission for the first time on October 16,1989 but they had a very short tenure, ending on January 1,1990. The Election Commissioner Amendment Act,1989 made the Commission a multi-member body, the concept of a 3-member Commission has been in operation since then, with the decisions being made by a majority vote. Other Election Commissioners can be removed by the President of India on the recommendation of the Chief Election Commissioner, a Chief Election Commissioner has never been impeached in India. In 2009, just before the 2009 Lok Sabha Elections, CEC N, the President opined that such a recommendation is not binding on the President, and hence rejected it. Subsequently, after Gopalaswamis retirement the next month, Chawla became the Chief Election Commissioner, one of the most important features of the democratic polity is elections at regular intervals. In every election, it issues a Model code of Conduct for political parties and candidates to elections in a free. The Commission issued the code for the first time in 1971 for the 5th Lok Sabha elections and it lays down guidelines for the conduct of political parties and candidates during an election period. It contains the rules of electoral morality. However, this lack of statutory backing does not prevent the Commission from enforcing it, a law regarding the registration process for political parties was enacted in 1989 and a number of parties got registered with the Commission. The registration helps avoid confusion ensures that the parties are brought under the purview of the commission. To curb the influence of money during elections, the Election Commission has made many suggestions. These limits have been revised over time, the Election Commission, by appointing observers from the Indian Revenue Service, keeps an eye on the individual account of election expenditure. The campaign period has also reduced by the Commission from 21 to 14 days for Lok Sabha. The Commission can issue an order for prohibition of publication and disseminating of results of opinion polls or exit polls to prevent influencing the voting trends in the electorate. In an attempt to decriminalise politics, the Election Commission has approached the Supreme Court to put a ban on convicted politicians from contesting elections. The Constitutional Act, passed in 1992 by the Narasimha Rao government, the Election Commission had tried to bring improvements in election procedures by the introduction of Electronic voting machines or EVMs

14. President of India – The President of the Republic of India is the Head of State of India and the Commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The oath of the President is taken in the presence of the Chief Justice of India, the President resides in an estate known as the Rashtrapati Bhavan situated in Raisina Hill in New Delhi. The presidential retreats are The Retreat in Chharabra, Shimla and Rashtrapati Nilayam in Hyderabad, the 13th and current President is Pranab Mukherjee, who was elected on 22 July 2012, and sworn in on 25 July 2012. He is also the first Bengali to be elected as President, India achieved independence from the British on 15 August 1947, initially as a Dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with George VI as king, represented in the country by a governor-general. Still, following this, the Constituent Assembly of India, under the leadership of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, the Constitution of India was eventually enacted on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950, making India a republic. The offices of monarch and governor-general were replaced by the new office of President of India, the constitution of the Republic of India gave the President the responsibility and authority to defend and protect the constitution of India and its rule of law. Invariably, any action taken by the executive or legislature entities of the constitution shall become law only after Presidents assent, the president shall not accept any actions of the executive or legislature which are unconstitutional. The president is the foremost, most empowered and prompt defender of the constitution, the primary duty of the President is to preserve, protect and defend the constitution and the law of India as made part of his oath. The President is the head of all independent constitutional entities. All his actions, recommendations and supervisory powers over the executive and legislative entities of India shall be used in accordance to uphold the constitution, there is no bar on the actions of the President to contest in the court of law. Legislative power is vested by the Parliament of India of which the president is the head. The President of the Republic summons both the Houses of the Parliament and prorogues them and he can dissolve the Lok Sabha. The President inaugurates Parliament by addressing it after the general elections, the Presidential address on these occasions is generally meant to outline the new policies of the government. All bills passed by the Parliament can become laws only after receiving the assent of the President per Article 111, after a bill is presented to him, the President shall declare either that he assents to the Bill, or that he withholds his assent from it. As a third option, he can return a bill to Parliament, if it is not a money bill, when, after reconsideration, the bill is passed accordingly and presented to the President, with or without amendments, the President cannot withhold his assent from it. Article 143 gave power to the president to consult the Supreme Court about the validity of any issue. These are in the nature of interim or temporary legislation and their continuance is subject to parliamentary approval, ordinances remain valid for no more than six weeks from the date the Parliament is convened unless approved by it earlier. Re-promulgation of ordinances after failing to get approval within stipulated time of the houses of parliament is unconstitutional act by the President

15. Chief Election Commissioner of India – The Chief Election Commissioner heads the Election Commission of India, a body constitutionally empowered to conduct free and fair elections to the national and state legislatures. Chief Election Commissioner of India is usually a member of the Indian Civil Service, India was probably one of the first countries in the World to go for a completely electronic ballot in the last elections. While the office has always been an important one in the machinery of the Indian political process, mr. Seshan is widely credited with undertaking a zealous effort to end corruption and manipulation in Indian elections. Though he made significant progress, several attempted to derail these efforts. In particular, the expansion of the Election Commission to include the two Election Commissioners was seen as a move to curtail the ability to act aggressively. The President of India appoints the Chief Election Commissioner, conventionally, senior-most Election Commissioner is appointed as CEC. He has tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years and he enjoys the same official status, salary and perks as available to Judges of the Supreme Court of India and High court. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed only through impeachment by the Parliament, subsequently, M Karunanidhi, the head of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam party and five times Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu supported the suggestion. Advani made this demand to remove any impression of bias or lack of transparency and fairness because, according to him, the following have held the post of the Chief Election Commissioner of India

16. Indian general election, 2004 (Bihar)

Harlakhi assembly election result 2015 live, Harlakhi vidhan sabha Election date 2015, Harlakhi opinion/exit poll 2014 2015, Harlakhi election contesting candidate list 2015, Harlakhi BJP Congress JDU RJD BSP candidate list, Harlakhi Voter list 2014 2015 booth wise, booth wise Harlakhi polling Station, Harlakhi Past Election Result Analysis, Harlakhi Election Result with Voting percentage, Harlakhi matdata Suchi in excel format

 

Bihar 
Result Status

Status Known For 240 out of 243 Constituencies

ConstituencyConst. No.Leading CandidateLeading PartyTrailing CandidateTrailing PartyMarginStatus
Harlakhi31BASANT KUMARRashtriya Lok Samta PartyMOHAMMAD SHABBIRIndian National Congress3550Counting In Progress

Harlakhi Bye election Results are : RLSP (NDA) candidate Sudhanshu Shekhar is leading by 7,300 votes after fifth round.

Harlakhi recorded 21% voter turnout till 11 AM

Assembly Constituency

Name

Party
JDU AllianceBJP AllianceOthers
Candidate namePartyCandidate namePartyCandidate nameParty
HarlakhiMd ShabbirCongressBasant KuswahaRLSP

 

Ac_No

AC_Name

Year

BJP

JD(U)

INC

RJD

Others

Winning Margin

31

Harlakhi

Assembly Election 2010

0.00

26.97

16.28

18.32

38.43

8.65

31

Harlakhi

Parliamentary Election 2009

34.03

0.00

18.20

19.39

28.37

14.64

31

Harlakhi

Assembly Election 2005

22.70

0.00

33.89

0.00

43.41

11.19

31

Harlakhi

Parliamentary Election 2004

32.87

0.00

44.12

0.00

23.01

11.25

31

Harlakhi

Party Alliance

INC+RJD

JD(U)

BJP+LJP+ RLSP

IND

Winning Margin

31

Harlakhi

Parliamentary Election 2014

30.97

13.56

38.59

16.88

7.62

 

Assembly Wise Parliamentary Election Result 2014

PC No

PC Name

AC_No

AC_Name

Candidate Name

Party

Vote

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Hukm Deo Narayan Yadav

BJP

53991

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Abdul Bari Siddiqui

RJD

43324

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Prof. Ghulam Ghous

JD(U)

18967

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Kumari Rita

SHS

10157

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Nota Votes Polled

NOTA Votes

2884

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Hari Narayan Yadav

BSP

1795

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Neeraj Pathak

AAP

1666

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Anirud Sahu

SJP(R)

1582

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Vijay Kumar

IND

1439

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Dhrub Narayan Karn

CPI(ML)(

1427

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Faiz Ahmad

JPJD

1413

6

Madhubani

31

Harlakhi

Ratneshwar Jha

AKBMP

1258

Bihar Assembly Election Result 2010

PC No

PC Name

AC_No

AC_Name

Candidate Name

Party

Vote

6

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