Madon Et Al 2003 Evaluation Essay

Madon's 2004 study fits into Topic E - Criminality. It is a key study that you need to learn in this syllabus. It supports the social side of the nature-nurture debate. It is about the self-fulfilling prophecy. You will need to know it's aim, procedure, results/findings, conclusion/evaluation.


To see if a parent’s expectations of their child’s drinking habits would become a reality.

Procedure Edit

Questioned 115 children aged between 12 and 13 and their parents. They were asked to guess how much alcohol their child regularly drank/would drink over the coming year. Then after a year, the children were asked about how much they actually drank.

Results/Findings Edit

Madon found that the children who drank the most alcohol were the ones whose parents had predicted a greater use of alcohol. It only took one parent to have a negative opinion about their child’s drinking habits to show a relationship with high levels of drinking. However, the child seemed at greater risk of higher alcohol use if both parents had negative beliefs.  

Conclusion Edit

The study showed that a parent’s prediction of their child’s alcohol use was very accurate. The parent’s expectations were consistent with alcohol use after 12 months. It could be concluded that this is a self for filling prophecy because what the parent expected came true. It may show that a parents beliefs can have a massive influence on a chilz behaviour.

Evaluation Edit

Large sample of participants

More valid, true

Parents may not have influenced their child’s behaviour at all - just very accurate at judging their child’s alcohol use
Gives strong warning to parents about holding negative beliefs about their children Many other factors influence a child’s drinking behaviour eg. friends and the media

It is only a correlation, no solid proof

Social desirability bias - children may say they drink more to look tough, parents may say they drink less because it is not acceptable

На брусчатке под ногами мелькали смутные тени, водка еще не выветрилась из головы. Все происходящее напомнило ему нечеткую фотографию. Мысли его то и дело возвращались к Сьюзан: он надеялся, что она уже прослушала его голос на автоответчике.

Чуть впереди, у остановки, притормозил городской автобус.

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