The Innova models are considerably different than the Stearns in both performance and material. We have three single models roughly the same size as the Stearns IK-116. Our Safari, Helios I, and Solar would be the models I would match against the Stearns.
The Innova models are longer at the waterline and have a deeper hull shape. The Innovas are also stiffer, with an inflation pressure of 3 psi, versus the 2 psi of the Stearns. This makes the Innovas easier to paddle and faster in the water than the Stearns. The other factor is that the paddling ergonomics are generally better in the Innovas, because the paddler sits higher than they do in the IK-116. This allows a more efficient paddling stroke, so you don’t tire as easily in the Innovas. Innova boats also are quicker to inflate and more compact when folded. They also come in a convenient drybag/backpack that is small enough to be legal carryon luggage.
The Stearns IK-116 uses an unreinforced PVC bladder wrapped by a zip-on nylon cover. The Innova boats use a heavy-duty polyester cloth covered in rubber, with vulcanized air-holding seams. Our construction is more typical of high end whitewater rafts and commercial duty Zodiacs. The bladder construction is cheaper to build, but it limits the air pressure in the tubes which makes the boat stiff. A lower pressure tube has to be bigger in diameter, and this widens the Stearns’ designs which contributes to the ergonomic issues. Furthermore, the Innova construction allows the boat to dry much faster than the bladder types which retain water under their covers.
Lastly, the Innova models are greener because they are PVC-free. PolyVinyl Chlorides (PVC’s) give off dioxins in their manufacture, lifespan, and disposal. Dioxins are associated with a number of environmental and health issues.
Dr. Perelman contacted the College Board and was surprised to learn that on the new SAT essay, students are not penalized for incorrect facts. The official guide for scorers explains: "Writers may make errors in facts or information that do not affect the quality of their essays. For example, a writer may state 'The American Revolution began in 1842' or "'Anna Karenina," a play by the French author Joseph Conrad, was a very upbeat literary work."' (Actually, that's 1775; a novel by the Russian Leo Tolstoy; and poor Anna hurls herself under a train.) No matter. "You are scoring the writing, and not the correctness of facts."
How to prepare for such an essay? "I would advise writing as long as possible," said Dr. Perelman, "and include lots of facts, even if they're made up." This, of course, is not what he teaches his M.I.T. students. "It's exactly what we don't want to teach our kids," he said.
SAT graders are told to read an essay just once and spend two to three minutes per essay, and Dr. Perelman is now adept at rapid-fire SAT grading. This reporter held up a sample essay far enough away so it could not be read, and he was still able to guess the correct grade by its bulk and shape. "That's a 4," he said. "It looks like a 4."
A report released this week by the National Council of Teachers of English mirrors Dr. Perelman's criticism of the new SAT essay. It cautions that a single, 25-minute writing test ignores the most basic lesson of writing -- that good writing is rewriting. It warns that the SAT is pushing schools toward "formulaic" writing instruction.
This is a far cry from all the hoopla when the new SAT was announced two years ago. College Board officials described it as a tool that could transform American education, forcing schools to better teach writing. A "great social experiment," Time magazine said.
In an interview, five top College Board officials strongly defended the writing test but sounded more muted about its usefulness. "The SAT essay should not be the primary way kids learn to write," said Wayne Camara, vice president for research. "It's one basic writing skill. If that's all the writing your high school English department is teaching, you have a problem."
They said that while there was a correlation between writing long and a high score, it was not as significant as Dr. Perelman stated. Graders also reward good short essays, they said, but the College Board erred by failing to release such samples to the public. "We will change that," said Chiara Coletti, a vice president.
As to facts not mattering, they said it was a necessary accommodation on such a short, high-pressure test. "We know students don't write well when they're anxious," said Ed Hardin, a College Board test specialist. "We don't want them not to go forward with that little detail. Our attitude is go right ahead with that missing date or fact and readers should be instructed not to count off for that."
Cynics say the new essay is window dressing added to placate California officials who in 2001 were calling the old SAT outmoded and were threatening to stop requiring it. In a recent paper, Edward White of the University of Arizona notes, "As long ago as 1999, in College Board Report No. 99-3, a research team pointed out that 'writing assessments based on a single essay, even those read and scored twice, have extremely low reliability."'
Indeed, the College Board's own advanced placement tests require multiple essays, but officials say that is not possible for the SAT, which at nearly four hours, is being criticized as too long.
"You can't base a lot on one essay," Dr. Camara of the College Board admitted. He said that was why the new SAT writing section also included 49 multiple-choice questions on grammar and style. Multiple-choice counts for 75 percent of the new writing grade; the essay 25 percent. "The multiple-choice makes the writing test valid," he says. In short, the most untrustworthy part of the new SAT writing section is the writing sample.
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